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52 Ancestors #17: Kārlis Radziņš

Time for Week 17 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge! As noted in my first post of this challenge, I am starting with my most ancient known ancestors.

This week’s ancestor is Kārlis Radziņš, born c. 1816 and died after 1877. He is my great-great-great-grandfather by way of my paternal grandfather’s paternal grandmother, Marija Radziņa.

Kārlis is an ancestor I do not have much information on. He lived on Lugaži estate in northern Latvia, on what is now the border between Latvia and Estonia, but at the time period would have been little more than a linguistic border (and even then, it was somewhat porous – Latvians and Estonians co-mingled across this boundary). According to the 1857 revision list, he was 41 years old at the time, making his birthdate c. 1816. According to this document, his father’s name was Jānis. He was married to a woman name Marija, whose surname may have been Kaukulis (this guess is made based on the families found at the farm she is alleged to be from according to her death record). They would have been married in 1840 or 1841, but the marriage records for Lugaži parish are missing for that year.

Kārlis and Marija had six known children who lived past infancy: Liene (c. 1841), Pēteris (c. 1844), Ieva (c. 1847), Kārlis (c. 1851), Jānis (c. 1854) and Marija (1856, my great-great-grandmother). Their seventh known child was a stillborn daughter in January of 1864, which also resulted in Marija’s death from complications due to the birth. I don’t see any sign of Kārlis remarrying in Lugaži in the years immediately following her death, but it is possible that he did later, or in a different congregation from Lugaži. He may not have remarried if his older children could be counted on to care for the younger ones.

I’m not certain yet when Kārlis died, but according to my great-great-grandmother Marija’s marriage record, he was still alive when she married Pēteris Celmiņš in Lugaži Lutheran Church on October 23, 1877.

After seventeen weeks, we are almost at the end of my “most ancient known ancestors” – just a few more to go, and then we will be moving on to more recent ancestors!

52 Ancestors #16: Mārtiņš Plūme

Time for Week 16 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge! As noted in my first post of this challenge, I am starting with my most ancient known ancestors.

This week’s ancestor is Mārtiņš Plūme, born c. 1825 and died after 1884. He is my great-great-great-grandfather by way of my maternal grandfather’s paternal grandmother, Doroteja Matilde Plūme.

Just like in the case of his wife Dārta Andersone, it is difficult to find out more about his ancestors due to the lack of revision lists prior to 1858. Like Dārta, it is likely that he was born on the Nabe estate, probably on Kroņi farm. His father’s name was Ādams, as indicated by the 1858 revision list entry for Kroņi. It is possible that a woman listed in the entry as “Ādams’ widow”, Trīne, is his mother, but since it does not definitively say that, I cannot be certain without a different source of proof. Ādams must have died prior to the 1850 revision list, since otherwise he would have still had an entry mentioning his death in the 1858 list. His date of death can be estimated to be between 1834 and 1850, since there is another son of his listed, also named Ādams, who was born c. 1835. I do not know at this time if Mārtiņš and Ādams Junior had any more siblings.

Mārtiņš Plūme married Dārta Andersone on December 9, 1845 at the Lēdurga Lutheran Church. Details of their children can be found in her 52 Ancestors entry, linked above. As I mentioned in that entry, Mārtiņš Plūme was able to purchase Kroņi farm in 1871 from the Nabe estate owner, Johann Adolph von Sievers, a scion of that famous Baltic German noble house. The purchase price was 4608 rubles, and Mārtiņš made a downpayment of 508 rubles. The rest was on credit, and at least 300 rubles needed to be paid every 3 years. The contract also stipulates that Mārtiņš retained the right to fish in the lakes of Nabe estate, and that von Sievers retained the right to create irrigation canals on Kroņi farm (until 1900).

I am not certain when Mārtiņš died, only that it was after Doroteja Matilde’s marriage in 1884. He probably remained on Kroņi farm until he died. Doroteja Matilde inherited Kroņi farm, which passed to her husband upon her death in 1918 and then passed to their three youngest daughters (Vera, Velta, Margrieta) after his death in 1922.

Property records can be a great source of family information – I have not looked at the entire Kroņi property file yet, but it has already provided great information for me – one key document listed all of the birth and death information for Doroteja Matilde and her husband Roberts Francis, as well as all of the birth information for their children, and later marriage information (if applicable). Somewhere in there I’m sure will be the information I need about Mārtiņš’ and Dārta’s deaths.

What goodies have you found in property records that aren’t related to property? Share your stories in comments!

WW1 Diary – April 18, 1917

Fortieth installment from the diary of my great-grandfather’s sister Alise, written during the First World War. When the diary starts, she is living just a few miles from the front lines of the Eastern Front, and is then forced to flee with her husband and two young daughters to her family’s house near Limbaži as the war moves even closer. Her third child, a son, was born there in February 1916. The family has now relocated to a home near Valmiera, and the Russian Revolution is in full swing. For more background, see here, and click on the tag “diary entries” to see all of the entries that I have posted.

April 18, 1917

Apparently it is *prohibited* to work hard on a workday. Leaflets are seen everywhere, the town is decorated with red flags. People wearing red ribbons are also everywhere, singing and dancing about the new “Freedom celebration”. What kind of good they will bring us is still a big question. All sorts of meetings, rallies and disagreements. Socialist revolutionaries want to take everyone’s homes, land and belongings, without compensation, and to divide them up so everyone gets their share. Social-democrats want to work against such foolish notions and soon we can expect a civil war amongst brothers…

Even though it is only a few days until Jurģi [NB: Traditional Latvian spring celebration], the weather is still cold, in the mornings only about 5 degrees, and the land is covered with a thick layer of snow. The heart sorrows, that in the place of greenery and bird-cherry flowers, there is still white snow, that does not let anything to blossom or grow.

At the beginning of the war, no one had experienced a summer that hot. Day after day, the sun traveled across the sky like a huge burning coal. It was sad to see the fields, which in May rippled so beautifully and freshly green, turn to yellow and then brown as if burned, and finally it looked like they were crumbling to dust. The people were waiting for rain. Clouds formed, but then scattered and the sun was red, blazing across the withered land. I remember, how the nights were dry – completely without dew, when we opened the window at night for some cool air, but instead the room filled with heavy smoke, for all of the forests were burning. They burned not only for one or two days, but for months. Even the flocks of bats and dragonflies raised the alarm, as in every case, that defies explanation.

Then one day, July 19, 1914, right around lunchtime – the hot breath of the land, quiet forests, empty roads and a lonely rider on a big horse, that belonged to our doctor, where was he going in such a hurry? What kind of horrible news is he carrying? At once I remembered the alarming news in the papers. Mobilization, war – and now that war has not yet ended, that war of horror, blood and so many terrible events. Even though the end might be soon, these horrible fateful days, where countries and thrones hang in the balance… and the weather is cold, very cold, compared to the beginning.

52 Ancestors #15: Līberts Lūkins

Time for Week 15 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge! As noted in my first post of this challenge, I am starting with my most ancient known ancestors.

This week’s ancestors is Līberts Lūkins, born 1819 (allegedly on September 3), died sometime after 1892. He is my great-great-great-grandfather by way of my paternal grandmother’s paternal grandfather Jēkabs Lūkins.

I say he was “allegedly” born on September 3, 1819, because I have not been able to independently confirm this fact. It is listed and sourced in a family document from 1942, but the source mentioned – birth records for Latvian members of the Mazsalaca Lutheran congregation – does not appear to survive to present day. At the age of seven, when the 1826 revision list was compiled, he was living at the Jauntauži farm on Jaunate estate in northern Latvia, south of Mazsalaca, near Lake Burtnieki. He was the eldest son of Jēkabs and Mārīte, with known younger siblings Jānis (c. 1822), Meļķis (c. 1825), Ādams (c. 1828), Anna (c. 1831) and Laše (c. 1834).

By the time of the 1834 revision list, the family has relocated to Žagari farm, also on Jaunate estate, about two kilometres away from Jauntauži. It is while living here that Līberts married Līze Mildere on October 29, 1844 at the Matīši Lutheran Church. Līberts and Līze had a number of children, including my great-great-grandfather Jēkabs in 1862. Līberts was still living at the time of Jēkabs’ marriage to Karolīne Matilde Baburs in 1892, but that’s all that I have for him thus far. It was very lucky for me that the 1844 marriage records for Matīši were the long-form variety that listed the bride and groom’s birth years and parents’ names, otherwise I couldn’t have been sure which of the many Līberts Lūkins’ under the age of 15 could have been him in the 1826 revision list. There were even three of them – including mine – that were seven years old at the time. I never thought “Līberts Lūkins” would be a common name, but here it certainly was!

There are a LOT of Lūkins family members in the Jaunate/Vecate/Mazsalaca area in the 19th century. It is easily one of the most common surnames on Jaunate estate in 1826, competing only with Straubergs. This means, according to the laws of the time, that they should all be related, since surnames would have been granted only a few short years earlier, and surname duplication was not permitted (that is, if one family had already selected a surname, no one else could have it). I haven’t sorted them all out yet to show the precise relationships, but my suspicion is a number of brothers who had a number of sons, many of whom were about to be or already married at the time of the surname granting, and the patriarch of that whole clan was still living at the time, but died shortly thereafter.

Apparently there is also a Lūkins family reunion every so often, taking place at Jauntauži, which I have yet to have the opportunity to attend. I’m not sure if this reunion is just for descendants of Līberts and his siblings, or if it extends to all Lūkins lines in the area that are descended from this mysterious progenitor (whose name could be Tenis, based on the name of the father of the oldest Lūkins I can find in the 1826 revision list). I hope I can go someday!

Have you attended a family reunion? How far back was the common relation? Did you meet people you hadn’t known before? Share your stories in comments!

WW1 Diary – April 8, 1917

Thirty-ninth installment from the diary of my great-grandfather’s sister Alise, written during the First World War. When the diary starts, she is living just a few miles from the front lines of the Eastern Front, and is then forced to flee with her husband and two young daughters to her family’s house near Limbaži as the war moves even closer. Her third child, a son, was born there in February 1916. The family has now relocated to a home near Valmiera, and the Russian Revolution is in full swing. For more background, see here, and click on the tag “diary entries” to see all of the entries that I have posted.

April 8, 1917 (Easter)

The heart shivers… soon, soon Easter morning will rise! May we rise along with Christ, may it be a big day for us all. May nature change and grow with new life. Onwards to spring, where the ice breaks on the rivers and streams, and quickly rages off towards the sea with all of winter’s grime and the earth’s cool breath. This year, the celebration of Rebirth also coincides with yet another cycle of change. This is the change of our spiritual and political life. Furthermore, this celebration of Rebirth also coincides with the monsoon of rapid changes. In all of Russia’s corners one can hear the noise of the huge and mighty breaking of the ice of society, that happened recently in Saint Petersburg. The old society’s winter fortresses are being destroyed, big changes are afoot amongst workers, and one hears the gentle echo in our Latvian homeland that this societal ice had collected in spades.

The sound of the breaking ice in Russia has not made gentle changes here, but rather it has disturbed our deepest ice fields, and these now break and crackle and fill the air with their roaring thunder. With great noise, they also destroy what is left of the old German charges. The old Russian reactionary builds are also unravelling. As if it is connected with this societal revolution, even our Daugava’s ice is cracking and breaking with more power and force this year. Our old, dear Daugava, what times we have to live in. The broken Russian and Latvian ice still hasn’t left – real summer is still distant.

There are many hard days ahead. Now the bread ration has been reduced, because the Russian stores have been depleted. Russia fears famine. We celebrated our Easter cosily at home. We had many guests and love was not lacking, since God smiles at everyone in His grace.

52 Ancestors #14: Dārta Andersone

Time for Week 14 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge! As noted in my first post of this challenge, I am starting with my most ancient known ancestors.

This week’s ancestor is Dārta Andersone, born c. 1825 and died after 1884. She is my great-great-great-grandmother, by way of my maternal grandfather’s paternal grandmother, Doroteja Matilde Plūme.

Dārta was probably born on Nabe estate in northern Latvia, just south of Limbaži, but since there are no revision lists prior to 1858 or birth records prior to 1834 for the local Lēdurga church, I can’t be certain. At the time of her marriage to my great-great-great-grandfather Mārtiņš Plūme on December 9, 1845, she was living on Putniņi farm on Nabe estate, and was listed as “farm manager’s daughter”. Thus it is likely that her family had lived there for some time – if they were newcomers, they’d be more likely to be farmhands instead. It is possible that her parents were Jānis and Dārta – a “Dārta Andersone, widow of Janis, age 72″ is listed in the 1858 revision list record for Putniņi, but I can’t confirm that she is the mother of my Dārta. It is possible that her parents were both already deceased by this point and that the people listed are aunts, uncles and cousins.

Dārta and her husband Mārtiņš would go on to have a number of children – Marija (c. 1846), Anna (c. 1850), Jānis (c. 1857) and Doroteja Matilde (my great-great-grandmother, 1865). These are only the children I know about, there could be more as well. Also interesting to note that Dārta and Doroteja are names that are sometimes used interchangeably in Latvian records, meaning that mother and daughter technically had the same name. However, I have not seen Doroteja Matilde referred to as Dārta – always Doroteja, or, more commonly, by her middle name Matilde. Dārta was still living at the time of her daughter’s marriage in 1884.

Even though Dārta moved to neighbouring Kroņi farm upon her marriage, it would seem that Putniņi also stayed in her branch of the family, since by the early 1920s, when her son-in-law Roberts Francis died, he was the owner of both Kroņi and Putniņi. He willed Kroņi to his daughters and Putniņi to his sons. The fact that Roberts Francis was from outside of Nabe (see my post about his father Jēkabs Francis), combined with the fact that Doroteja’s father Mārtiņš Plūme had bought Kroņi in 1871, leads me to believe that both Kroņi and Putniņi were inherited by Doroteja, and then passed to her husband after her death in 1918. This means three generations of daughters inheriting – Dārta from her parents, and then Doroteja from hers – in both cases over siblings who were male – and then finally Roberts’ and Doroteja’s daughters. I know in many countries inheritances were typically only granted to male descendants, and sometimes even only the firstborn male, but in Latvian territory this was not the case, even before the fall of the Russian Empire. As I believe I’ve mentioned before, three out of four of my great-grandmothers were the property owners of the family, not their husbands. I haven’t found any scholarly references to this, but given how prevalent female inheritance and property ownership is in my own family, I believe that it has to be pretty widespread in late 19th and early 20th century Latvia in general.

Do you have female Latvian ancestors who also inherited the family properties? Share your stories in comments!

52 Ancestors #13: Indriķis Štelmahers

Time for Week 12 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge! As noted in my first post of this challenge, I am starting with my most ancient known ancestors.

This week’s ancestor is Indriķis Štelmahers, born c. 1833 and died 1917. He is my great-great-grandfather by way of my maternal grandmother’s mother Jūle Štelmahere.

Unlike most of my “most ancient” ancestors, most of what I know about Indriķis comes from family, because the records are scarce and surnames even scarcer. This is what the records tell me: according to the 1897 All-Russia Census, Indriķis was born c. 1833 in Varieši parish, north of Krustpils, in what was then the Vitebsk guberniya of the Russian Empire, now the province of Latgale in Latvia. His family line is the only one of my family lines that comes from Latgale (meanwhile, his daughter’s husband – my great-grandfather – has my only family line from Zemgale, all of my other ancestors are from Vidzeme – I have no known Kurzeme ancestors). His father’s name was Jānis. At the time of the 1897 Census, he was living with his wife Ieva, daughters Jūle (my great-grandmother), Emīlija and Karlīne, and son Jānis. My great-grandmother Jūle was born on May 19, 1874, and her baptism was recorded in the Krustpils Lutheran Church records. That is all of the documentary evidence that I have regarding Indriķis.

My family stories, however, provide a lot more. Before he married my great-great-grandmother Ieva, Indriķis was married to another lady whose name I believe was Māde, and they had a daughter Ieva. Then Māde died, and Indriķis remarried, and had his other four children. His daughter Ieva would go on to have many children, and the descendants of these children make up most of my known relatives in Latvia.

At any rate, Indriķis was a wheelwright, as indicated by his surname (Štelmahers is the Latvianized form of the German Stellmacher, which means wheelwright). Being as surnames in that part of Latgale didn’t become common until after the 1860s, it is quite possible that Indriķis was the first person in his family to hold a surname, if his father was already deceased at the time the requirements came about. He worked at the Krustpils estate. I have a family photograph with him holding one of the wheels that he made.

When the First World War broke out, Indriķis was quite elderly. Nevertheless, since the war front was often concentrated along the Daugava river, he and his family had to flee. While his daughter Jūle (with her husband Brencis Līcītis and daughter Marta) fled almost all the way to Moscow, Indriķis, his wife Ieva and daughter Karlīne only went so far as Rēzekne, about 100km east of Krustpils. It is here that Indriķis allegedly died of dysentery in 1917, though I have not been able to find a death record to that effect.

Family stories are important. Without them, I’d barely know anything about Indriķis – but since he is within the memory of people that I knew, and people that I know that knew people who knew him, I am able to know more about his life than what is in the records. I hope that eventually the records will tell me more, but thus far, I have not found very many from that part of the country.

Do you have family stories that have provided much more information than records have? Share your stories in comments!

52 Ancestors #12: Kristīne Kvante

Time for Week 12 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge! As noted in my first post of this challenge, I am starting with my most ancient known ancestors.

This week’s ancestor is Kristīne Kvante, born July 11, 1833 (some sources say 1830, but she is not even a year old at the time of the 1834 revision list), and died sometime after 1867. She is my great-great-great-grandmother, by way of my paternal grandmother’s paternal grandfather, Jēkabs Šīrs (you read about Jēkabs’ paternal grandfather Marcis Šīrs several weeks ago).

Kristīne Kvante was born on Cāļu folwark (“half-estate” – a small estate that was a subsidiary of a larger estate), on the south shore of Lake Burtnieki, to parents Jēkabs and Marija. Jēkabs was a carpenter. Kristīne had five older siblings, Jānis (c. 1818), Jēkabs (c. 1819), Anna (c. 1822), Pēteris (c. 1827) and Marija (c. 1831). The family moved estates frequently – they had moved to Cāļu folwark from Burtnieki estate in 1826, and then they moved again to Briedes estate prior to Kristīne’s marriage in 1851. Kristīne married Jānis Šīrs on November 21, 1851 at Matīši Lutheran Church.

Kristīne would continue to move around for much of her life. The family moved to Stāberģi estate near Aloja in 1858, which is where my great-great-grandfather Jēkabs Šīrs was born in 1862. They moved to Milite estate in 1863, and then Vilzēni in 1868. This is where the trail ends, though there are some indications that they may have continued on to Limbaži at some point, but I have not found them there yet. By this time, there are so many people with the names Šīrs and Kvante running around northern Latvia that I haven’t had the opportunity to trace them all. In addition to Jēkabs, Kristīne and her husband Jānis had at least three more children – Jānis, Pēteris and Marcis.

Kristīne’s family story highlights the importance of the incoming/outgoing registers to keep track of people who moved about frequently – without them, people could easily just disappear without a trace, even if they only moved a few kilometres away. But thankfully, in the areas where these registers survive, they will provide detailed information about who left a place, when, where they went, and then on the other end, when they got there and from where. So even if a register on one end might be missing, the other can still provide some of the information and you can keep your trace going.

Have incoming/outgoing registers been vital to your research? Share your successes here!

Rīga Passport Database Index is Available!

Okay, so admittedly, I’m late with this post, since the database I’m going to talk about came online a few months ago, but with the other projects I’ve got going on, I hadn’t gotten around to this post yet. Better late than never!

If you’ve been paying attention to Raduraksti over the past few months, you’ll see that a new category has appeared – the “Database” section, which contains one item right now – “List of Latvian inhabitants 1918-1940″. Sounds exciting, right?

It is an exciting resource, however, it is not as exhaustive as it might sound. More accurately, this should be called an “Index of Rīga internal passport holders, 1918-1940″. “Internal passport” is important – in the interwar period, this was a document that everyone over the age of 15 was supposed to have as proof of identity. Not only did it record one’s vital statistics – photograph, birthdate, birthplace, father’s name – but also addresses that the person lived at, stamps confirming participation in different elections, and so on. An internal passport can really help track someone who moved around a lot because of this.

The other important thing to know is that this collection only encompasses passports of Rīga residents – now, how they define “Rīga residents” can be a bit confusing. There are many people who lived in Rīga who officially “belonged” somewhere else – for example, my great-grandfather Pēteris Eduards Celmiņš is found in this index, though he was born in and officially belonged to Vijciems parish in northern Latvia, despite living in Rīga during that time period. His wife, Anna Liepa, a born-and-bred Rīgan, was also officially registered in Vijciems parish due to her marriage to Pēteris. The passports will list all addresses that the person lived in during the passport’s validity, including those outside of Rīga. But whenever the passport’s validity was up is presumably when the passport was returned to the government and then became a part of this archival collection. However, since there’s nothing saying that everyone returned their passports, and many could have been lost or stolen along the way, this collection is not a firm determinant of everyone who lived in Rīga during this time period. Plenty of people who lived in Rīga might not appear in this database, especially if they were born in the 1920s or later, since they might not have had their own passport yet (or still had it in their possession when the Second World War started, and thus may not have turned them in to become a part of this collection).

Now, the database does not provide all of the information that is on the passport. It just provides the barebones outline – name, surname, father’s name, birthdate, birthplace, and place of registration (“place of origin” in the English-language version, but that doesn’t seem accurate, based on what I describe above). But if you find this information in the database, then you know that the passport is there, and you can look at it at the Latvian State Historical Archives and make copies.

It is possible to search the database, but they don’t make the process easy – you need to enter the name you’re looking for and press “Enter”, and only then “Search”. You also have to enter all of the proper diacritic marks – ā, ē, ī, ū, č, ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ, š, ž – otherwise you will not get any results. Don’t forget to search both male and female variants of surnames, since they will be listed separately. To search for both at once, enter the stem of the name (for example, “Celmiņ” for Celmiņš/Celmiņa), and then search using the “>” sign instead of the “=” sign, and your results will include all names starting with that stem.

Unfortunately, the database does not provide the entries for “maiden name”, which is a shame, since they are available in the on-site database in the archives. This means that if a woman is married, she will be listed under her married name, and she will not appear in the index under her maiden name, unless she had a previous passport issued under her maiden name.

Now, what about passports for places other than Rīga? In some cases, some local parish document collections will have these passports available, but this is relatively rare. A few parishes have well-preserved collections, but unfortunately most do not. The ones that do exist are not found in this database, and I don’t know if they intend on adding them in the future.

Have you had any luck finding your ancestors in this database? Made any new discoveries? Any other questions about this database? Please share in comments!

52 Ancestors #11: Kristīne Kukure

Time for Week 11 of the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge! As noted in my first post of this challenge, I am starting with my most ancient known ancestors.

At the close of last week’s post, I mentioned that this week I would be talking about one of my “more puzzling female ancestors” – this would be Kristīne Kukure, born November 22, 1872, and died July 14, 1945. She is my great-great-grandmother, by way of my paternal grandmother’s mother Lilija Šīre.

Now, one would say that I have her birth and death dates – how mysterious could she be? Well, the mystery appears because despite the numerous sources that I have that mention her birthdate, and a birthplace of Limbaži, I have not found her there – or anywhere within a 25-kilometre radius. It is like she just fell out of the sky to marry my great-great-grandfather Jēkabs Šīrs (I don’t have their marriage record either), and then have my great-grandmother Lilija in 1899 in Kalnciems (baptized in Daugavgrīva). There are several other Kristīnes Kukures, but none of them have the correct father’s name or birth year (though this is typically flexible), and they married other people at later times (that is, after my Kristīne was already married with a child).

Here’s what I do know: Her father’s name was Andrejs. She had two brothers who were living at the time of her death: Andrejs Kukurs (son of Andrejs) and Augusts Blaus (son of Andrejs). So this presents the first mystery: Where did her two brothers of different surnames come from? Was Augusts Blaus adopted? Or the son of a first marriage of her mother’s? An illegitimate child of her mother’s, who wasn’t ever officially adopted by Andrejs Kukurs? Or did their mother remarry after Andrejs’ death and this is a child from her second marriage? Or did the family change their name at some point, but Andrejs Kukurs Junior kept the old family name? Or the other way around – Blau was the original name, and then they changed it to Kukurs? Any of these are possibilities, though my suspicion is one of the first/second marriage options, since there is an Anna Kukurs with a father Andrejs who was born in 1866, baptized in the Limbaži St. Katherine’s Lutheran Church, as well as an Andrejs Kukurs baptized in 1839 – a perfect age to be the father of Anna and Kristīne.

Furthermore, I know that Jēkabs and Kristīne divorced on June 9, 1923. Jēkabs died several months later on October 14. What led to their divorce? The death record that I have does not provide a cause of death (it is a copy that was re-issued in 1942 – I wonder why? Another question!). After the divorce, daughter Lilija inherited most of the family property, and Kristīne lived with Lilija’s family – Lilija, husband Augusts Lūkins and their daughter Zenta – in what is now Vecmilgrāvis, a northern suburb of Rīga. When Lilija, Augusts and Zenta left Latvia for the West during the Second World War, Lilija signed a power of attorney giving her mother control over the family property in her absence. This document was signed on September 6, 1944. Kristīne died less than a year later, at which point her brothers signed a letter supporting the naming of two people to the administration of Kristīne’s estate. Since this was after the second Soviet invasion, I’m not sure how free of a choice that was, or what, in the end, happened to the family property. These are all documents in the possession of my great-grandfather Augusts Lūkins’ extended family, since his brother Vilis was a notary, and thus they have remained in his family’s archive.

So where was Kristīne Kukure born? Was she born in the Limbaži St. Katherine’s Lutheran Church area, and just not baptized? Or was she born somewhere else? Who was her mother? Where did she and Jēkabs meet and marry? So many questions, I just hope that I will someday be able to answer them.